Since Catholics are on the defensive, Protestants have transcribed the Bible and the King James version is still the most famous and important in the English language. Then, in the “Catholic drift” under Charles I. Persecution to extreme Protestants (Reformed Calvinists) again raised his ugly head. But when this happened, the conquest of neighbouring Ireland encouraged the Protestant ways of Irish Catholicism. Exaggerated reports of violence against British soldiers in Ulster ( Northern Ireland) made possible by the recently released press fuelled a patriotic Protestantism similar to what the Spanish armada had. One of the military leaders responsible for the repression of the Irish, Oliver Cromwell, quickly rose in popularity and eventually took over England as “Lord Protector”. After the Calvinists read Daniel`s book, the godless rulers had to be overthrown and Karl dissolved Parliament, justifying Cromwell`s acquisition. When Mary Queen of Scots died and her hopes for an English alliance were shattered, the despised Spaniards began to conquer England and overthrow Elizabeth. Philip II, the king of the Habsburgs of Spain, mounted the largest armada to date (Navy). Under the Duke of Medina Sidonia, he sailed from Cadiz to the British Isles in 1588 in the hope of seeking experienced soldiers from the Netherlands. They encountered several obstacles in the English Channel, including excellent fortifications built along the coast by Elizabeth`s father, Henry, and especially bad weather. The young English Navy had cast iron guns which, unlike Spain, did not overheat, and she and the Dutch set fire to fishing boats and used them to set fire to the largest Spanish ships (floating torches were called bright lights, burners or fireships).
Elizabeth gathered the troops with a speech on the Tilbury coast, which English students are still reciting, shown in the red circle on the table below. After three weeks of high sacrifices in the English Channel, the disastrous Spanish expedition finally ended with the remains of the Armada sailing north across Scotland and sinking off the Irish coast. The interim was overthrown in 1552 by the insurrection of the Protestant elector Maurice of Saxony and his allies. During the negotiations in Passau in the summer of 1552, even the Catholic princes had called for a lasting peace, fearing that the religious controversy would never be resolved. However, the emperor was not willing to recognize religious division in Western Christianity as permanent. This document was foretold by the peace of Passau, which in 1552 granted religious freedom to Lutherans after a victory of the Protestant armies.