Carbon dioxide, salmon gas and methane are gases that accumulate in the atmosphere and prevent heat from spreading from the Earth`s surface into space, causing what is called a greenhouse effect. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the main international scientific body dealing with this issue, the concentration of these heat-capturing gases has increased significantly since a pre-industrial period and has risen to a level that has not been reached for at least 800,000 years. Carbon dioxide (the main cause of climate change) has increased by 40% since 1750, salmon gas by 20% and methane by 150%, mainly due to the burning of dirty fossil fuels. The IPCC says it is “extremely likely” that these emissions are mainly responsible for the rise in global temperatures since the 1950s. Meanwhile, deforestation and forest degradation have also contributed to their fair share of global carbon emissions. A study published in 2018 reports a threshold where temperatures could rise to 4 or 5 degrees above the pre-industrial level (ambiguous expression, continuity would be “4-5 °C”), thanks to self-concretizing feedbacks in the climate system, indicating that this threshold is below the 2 degree target set in the Paris Climate Agreement. Study author Katherine Richardson points out, “We find that, in its history, the Earth has never had a near-stable state about 2°C warmer than pre-industrial and we suggest that there is a considerable risk that the system itself, because of all these other processes, will want,” even if we stop emissions. This doesn`t just mean reducing emissions, but much more.  Ultimately, all parties recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and treat loss and damage,” but in particular any mention of indemnification or liability is excluded.  The Convention also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will attempt to answer questions relating to the classification, management and sharing of responsibilities in the event of loss.  While the expanded transparency framework is universal, the framework, together with the global inventory to be held every five years, must provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish between the capacities of developed and developing countries.
In this context, the Paris Agreement includes provisions to improve the capacity building framework.  The agreement recognises the different circumstances of some countries and notes in particular that the technical expert review for each country takes into account that country`s specific reporting capacity.  The agreement also develops an initiative to enhance transparency to help developing countries put in place the institutions and processes necessary to comply with the transparency framework.  While both the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement aim to tackle climate change, there are important differences between them. Affordable and scalable solutions are now available to enable countries to jump into cleaner, more resilient economies….