Methods Of Agreement And Difference

Mill`s Methods are five methods of induction described by the philosopher John Stuart Mill in his book A System of Logic, published in 1843. [1] That they shed light on questions of causality. Mill`s methods should come as no surprise, as these rules articulate some of the principles we implicitly use in cause-and-effect reasoning in everyday life. However, it is important to respect the limits of these rules. For a property to be a necessary condition, it must always be present when the effect is present. As is the case, it is in our interest to examine cases where the effect is present and to take into consideration the properties present and those that are considered as “possible necessary conditions”. Obviously, not all properties missing when the effect is present can be necessary conditions of action. In comparative politics, this method is more generally referred to as the most diverse system design. Symbolically, the compliance method can be described as follows: Mills` compliance rule states that if, in all cases where an effect occurs, there is a single C factor, common to all those cases, then C is the cause of the effect.

According to the table in this example, the only thing you ate was the oyster. So, if we apply the rule of concordance, we conclude that eating oysters is the cause of diseases. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) was an English philosopher who wrote on a wide range of subjects from language and science to political philosophy. The so-called “Mills” methods are five rules of search for causes that he proposed. It has been assumed that some of these rules were actually discussed by the famous Islamic scientist and philosopher Avicenna (980-1037). Determining exact cause and effect is not an easy task. We can often confuse them or misinterpret them because we lack sufficient information. Mill`s methods are attempts to isolate a cause from a complex sequence of events. Perhaps the best way to present Mill`s methods is an example. Let`s say your family went out to the evening buffet, but when you got home, you all felt sick and had a stomach ache. How do you determine the cause of the disease? Suppose you create a table of the food consumed by each family member: the common method uses both the conformity method and the difference method as shown in the graph above. The application of the common method should therefore tell us that this time it is beef that is the cause.

This principle, which is simply called the “common method”, simply represents the application of compliance and difference methods. As an example of the method of difference, we consider two similar countries. Country A has a center-right government, a unique system and was a former colony. Country B has a center-right government, a single system, but has never been a colony. The difference between countries is that country A gladly supports anti-colonial initiatives, while country B does not. The difference method would identify the independent variable to be or not the status of each country as a former colony, the dependent variable supporting anti-colonial initiatives. This is due to the fact that, among the two similar countries compared, the difference between the two is whether they were once a colony or not. This then explains the difference with the values of the dependent variables, with the former colony supporting decolonization rather than the country with no history of being a colony. In this particular case, you are the only one who has not fallen ill. The only difference between you and others is that you didn`t eat salad…